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正规赌篮球软件-大众陷柴油车丑闻 在华业务毫发未伤

2023-03-21 05:22 已有 人浏览 正规赌篮球软件
本文摘要:HONG KONG — China is Volkswagen’s single-largest market, and the company vies with General Motors as the country’s biggest automaker. But Volkswagen’s diesel scandal is unlikely to have many repercussions in China.香港——中国是大众汽车(Volkswagen)的仅次于市场,此外它还在和通用汽车(General Motors)争夺战该国仅次于汽车制造商的地位。


HONG KONG — China is Volkswagen’s single-largest market, and the company vies with General Motors as the country’s biggest automaker. But Volkswagen’s diesel scandal is unlikely to have many repercussions in China.香港——中国是大众汽车(Volkswagen)的仅次于市场,此外它还在和通用汽车(General Motors)争夺战该国仅次于汽车制造商的地位。但它的柴油丑闻有可能会在这里产生过于大影响。

That is because Volkswagen sells almost no diesel cars in China — fewer than 1,000 of the three million or so the company sells each year in the country, where gasoline engines reign.这是因为大众在中国销售的车型中完全没柴油车——公司每年在中国销售300万辆车,其中将近1000辆是柴油动力;汽油动力汽车是在中国占有绝对优势。It is not for lack of trying on Volkswagen’s part.这并不是因为大众没尝试过销售柴油车。The company, hoping to replicate its success elsewhere as a diesel leader, lobbied Beijing for the better part of a decade to let it build diesel-powered cars in China. But regulators in China, which imports more than half of its oil, have repeatedly rebuffed those pleas — partly over environmental concerns and partly because the government has preferred to reserve relatively scarce diesel fuel for trucks and farm tractors.为了把作为柴油动力领先者的顺利读取中国来,大众在北京游说了好几年,期望能在中国生产柴油动力车。

但在中国,一半以上的石油都是进口的,大众的哀求在监管部门那里屡次刁难——部分是环境问题,部分是因为政府想要把比较匮乏的柴油留下卡车和农用拖拉机用于。As a result, the only diesel-powered cars Volkswagen sells in China are imported from Europe and are sold mainly to taxi fleets.因此,大众在中国销售的柴油动力车全部都从欧洲进口,主要出售得出租车公司。

The environmental concerns have been raised by Chinese regulators who were in frequent contact with American experts, notably at the International Council on Clean Transportation, a nonprofit research group. The council is the same group that documented the performance shortfalls of Volkswagen diesels in the United States and brought the matter to the Environmental Protection Agency.中国监管部门对柴油动力车涉及的环境问题很关心,他们与美国专家频密认识,特别是在是国际洗手交通委员会(International Council on Clean Transportation)的专家。这是一个非营利性的研究机构,正是他们将大众汽车柴油发动机性能严重不足的问题记录下来,报告给了美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)。

American researchers have long been more worried than European experts that diesel emissions might be carcinogenic. In addition, diesel exhaust tends to have more particulates than gasoline engine emissions. Particulates are a big health concern in dusty northern China, and they add to the notoriously bad air pollution in Beijing itself.与欧洲的专家们比起,美国研究人员长期以来更加担忧的是柴油车排放物致癌物的可能性。此外,柴油机废气中的颗粒物一般来说少于汽油发动机。而在中国北方尘沙天气中,颗粒物是众多身体健康问题,造成了北京本身就相当严重的空气污染更进一步好转。


Making matters worse is that, until fairly recently, many Chinese refineries lacked the technology to remove much of the naturally occurring sulfur contaminants when they produced diesel from crude oil. The resulting high pollution when diesel was burned as truck fuel made regulators wary of allowing the nation’s fast-growing car fleet to burn diesel as well.更加差劲的是,以后最近,中国的很多炼油厂在从原油中萃取柴油时,缺乏将大自然产生的硫污染物除去的技术。结果乃是柴油作为卡车燃料自燃时产生大量污染,造成监管机构不肯只能让全国快速增长最慢的小汽车也用于柴油。Another predicament in China for Volkswagen involves Chinese consumers. The car-buying public has long been skeptical of diesels, associating them with tractors and viewing them as unsophisticated. Company executives had long expressed confidence, though, that they could change these perceptions with an energetic advertising and public relations effort — if only they could win permission to mass-produce diesels in China.在中国,大众面对的另一个艰难牵涉到中国消费者。购车者长年对柴油所持猜测态度,不会把它和拖拉机联系一起,指出这种车较为低级。


但大众的高管仍然回应,只要能准许在中国大量生产柴油车,他们有信心通过有力的广告和公关活动来转变这些观念。Diesels have long offered a trade off — higher air pollution, even with cleanly refined diesel, but also better fuel economy. Europe is a market that highly prizes fuel economy, with some of the world’s most stringent gas mileage standards. China and the United States have somewhat less stringent mileage standards, although they can still be hard for automakers to meet if they produce a lot of big cars and sport utility vehicles. As a European automaker, Volkswagen developed a lot of expertise in building fuel-efficient diesels and started its Chinese diesel lobbying efforts around 2000.很长一段时间以来,柴油车仍然是一种权衡的产物。它带给的空气污染更加相当严重,哪怕用的是洗手萃取的柴油,但它的燃油效率也更高。


作为一家欧洲汽车生产商,大众累积了大量生产节约能源柴油车的专业知识,并在2000年前后开始在中国进行游说行动。Since 2008 or so, though, Volkswagen executives have pushed less hard for Chinese diesels. That may be because they began manufacturing expensive but fuel-efficient models of gasoline engines in China. This enabled the company to meet Chinese fuel-economy standards without needing to resort to diesel engines.但从2008年左右以来,大众高管在中国促销柴油车的力度弱化了。这有可能是因为它们开始在中国生产便宜但却节约能源的汽油发动机车辆。

这让该公司需要不必无可奈何柴油发动机之后超过中国的节油标准。And those three million cars a year it sells in China indicate that the company is still finding buyers, even with the more expensive engines.在中国年销量约300万辆的事实指出,该公司的产品仍然有买家,尽管用的是更加便宜的发动机。

“After 2008, they did not have a strong motive to promote diesel,” said Yale Zhang, the managing director of Automotive Foresight, a Shanghai consulting firm.“2008年以后,他们早已没尤其反感的理由去促销柴油车了,”上海咨询公司“汽车市场预测”总监张豫说道。